Research Papers

"Trends in Home Hours in the U.S. and Europe" with Lei Fang
 The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics Volume 17, Issue 1


Abstract: Using data from the Multinational Time Use Study, this paper documents the trend and level of time allocation, with a focus on home hours, for the US and European countries. Three patterns emerge. First, home hours per person have declined in both the US and European countries over the past 50 years. Second, female time allocation contributes more to the difference in time allocation per person between the US and European countries than does male time allocation. Third, the time allocation between the US and European coun- tries is more similar for prime-age individuals than for young and old individuals.

Keywords: age; gender; home hours; time use. JEL Classification: J22; D13. 

"Forces Shaping Hours in the OECD" in American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics,
Volume 3, Number 4, October 2011


The goal of this paper is to examine the role of taxes and productivity growth as forces influencing market hours. To achieve this goal, the paper considers a calibrated growth model extended to include home production and subsistence consumption, both of which are found to be key features influencing market hours. The model is simulated for 15 OECD countries. The primary force driving changes in market hours is found to be changing labor income tax rates and productivity catch-up relative to the United States is found to be an important secondary force.

Tax series updated February 2017

Average tax rates on consumption, investment, labor and capital in the OECD 1950-2003


This paper develops a method for calculating average tax rates on consumption and investment expenditures and labor and capital income. Tax rates are constructed for 15 OECD countries over the period 1950-2003. Total tax revenue is divided into revenue generated from four different sources: consumption expenditures, investment expenditures, labor income and capital income. To find the average tax rate, tax revenue from each source is then divided by the appropriate income or expenditure base. Other researchers have used a similar methodology previously e.g., Mendoza, Razin and Tesar (1994) and Carey and Rabesona (2002). However this series covers more countries for a longer time period. Mendoza et al. and Carey and Rabesona use OECD Revenue Statistics available in 1965. For this paper, national account publications from the OECD are used, which are available from 1950 onward. This allows for the calculation of a long time series for a broad set of countries.
These tax rates have been used by Ohanian, Raffo and Rogerson (2006) and Hendricks, McDaniel and Ohanian (2007).

Downloadable tax series

15 countries, 1950-2015

38 countries, fewer years

original series

Graphical comparison with existing tax rates calculated by Mendoza, Razin and Tesar (1994)

Consumption tax rate

Labor tax rate

Capital tax rate

Contact Cara McDaniel for questions about tax series or to request programs used to create tax series